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The finches are seed eaters, often with large bills and pronounced wing markings. The chaffinch is the most common and can be found wherever there are trees and bushes, often giving itself away with its 'pink-pink' call.

The greenfinch too is widespread and common, although it is declining. The yellow markings on its wings catch the eye and its hissing wheezy song the ear.

Linnets prefer to breed on gorse heath but will use other sites with dense low cover and a good source of seeds nearby. They have declined by almost half nationally since the 1970s, but by rather less in Essex.

Bullfinches too are in serious decline: two out of every three lost since 1969. Their habit of eating fruit buds in late winter has made them unpopular with fruit farmers, but they have also suffered as a result of intensive farming. It is an unobtrusive bird, nesting in woodland or thick hedgerows.

The hawfinch is much less common than any of these, occurring almost solely in open, deciduous woodland. Its large strong bill is adapted to cracking nuts and fruit stones.

Most siskins visit Essex in winter, forming flocks feeding on the seeds of alder trees and other conifers, but recently a few have stayed over the summer, indicating that they may soon start to breed here.

Historically, the redpoll was mainly a winter visitor to Essex too, but started breeding here regularly in the 1960s, in birch scrub or thickets of alder, thorn and willow, although sadly breeding numbers have declined over the 1970s and 1980s. Birch seeds are its favorite food.

Most goldfinches, by contrast, breed here but move to France or Iberia for the winter. They nest high in a tree and feed on the seeds of wild plants such as thistles, often forming small, twittering feeding parties. They also come regularly to gardens where niger seed is provided for them.

© Ken Wooldridge